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Kaylee, Eliza, Hannah1920-1938"Death solves all problems. No man, no problems.' -Stalin

After World War I tensions between nations was higher than before. The United States had failed to enter the League of Nations, which had caused the league to have trouble keeping the peace it had aimed to obtain. France then demanded strict enforcement of the Treaty of Versailles, which began to cause economic downfall in Germany due to the reparations they were forced to pay. By 1924, not just Germany but all of Europe was in an economic depression. The depression was caused by many factors. One major factor was a series of downturns in the economies of individual nations. Prices began to fall rapidly due to over-production. Another factor was the international financial crisis involving the crash of the U.S stock market. Much of European prosperity had been built on U.S bank loans to Germany, which Germany needed to pay back reparations to France and Great Britain. When the stock market crashed on October 29, 1929, U.S investors panicked. They began to withdraw more money from Germany weakening the banks of Germany and other European states. By May 31, trade had slowed down, industrial production had declined, and unemployment had risen. Nations were confused and didn’t know how to rid themselves of the depression. Many reforms and new policies were put in place from different nations. But only World War II and the growth of weapon industries brought some nations out of the Great Depression.

After the Great Depression, France and Britain were the only European states that remained democratic. The other nations adopted dictatorial regimes. A new form of dictatorship was the totalitarian state. This meant that the government aimed to control all parts of lives of the citizens. The totalitarian states that emerged were led by a single leader and a single party. Another type of dictatorship that was rising was based off the political philosophy of fascism. Italian leader, Benito Mussolini, was the first to establish a European fascist movement. He wanted to become a fascist state meaning the people were controlled by the government and any oppression was suppressed. By 1922, this movement was moving quickly and Mussolini was gaining complete control. By 1926, fascists outlawed all other political parties in Italy and established the OVRA (fascist secret police), Mussolini also ruled Italy as Il Duce, meaning “the Leader.” While Italy was moving towards a complete fascist state, Russia was starting a new era. In 1921, Lenin, the leader of Russia, abandoned the New Economic Policy. In 1922, Lenin and the communists established a new state known as the Soviet Union. When Lenin died in 1924 a struggle for power came about. The fiercest struggle was between Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin. Stalin eventually won when Trotsky was murdered in Mexico in 1940. Stalin being in charge marked a new era. He launched an economic plan named the Five- Year Plan. This established Russia as an industrial state, but had both benefits and costs.
Adolf Hitler was born in Austria in 1889 and eventually moved to Vienna where he developed his basic ideas that would change how the world worked. He gained complete control of the Nazi party and wished for complete control over Germany. He published a book named Mein Kampf based on his account of his movement and its basic ideas. Once the Nazi had grown to be the largest party in the German parliament Hitler began talking to the nation and gaining supporters. He promised to create a new Germany. His appeals to national pride, national honor, and traditional militarism struck a chord with his listeners. In 1933 the president of Germany agreed to make Hitler chancellor and allowed him to create a new government. Only took two months for him to lay the foundation for complete Nazi control. In March 1933 the Enabling Act was passed which meant Hitler no longer needed permission from anyone. He set up concentration camps for those he opposed and began a reign of terror, especially to those who were Jews. Hitler was anti-Semitic, meaning against Jews, and took anyone to the camps who were apart of this group. He hoped to create a perfect Aryan racial state. He saw this race as Scandinavians, the Romans and Greeks, and Twentieth-century Germans. From the beginning, the Nazi Party reflected strong anti-Semitic beliefs. The Nazis established these ideas into policies. The Nuremburg laws were established and excluded Jews from German Citizenship and forbade marriage between Jews and German citizens. More drastic movements had taken place, and eventually Jews were barred from public transportation, along with all public buildings.


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Adolf Hitler






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Hitler's Book: Mein Kampf
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Francisco Franco
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Chiang Kai-shek




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Map of Europe during WW2



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Joseph Stalin
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Benito Mussolini
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Jesse Owens


People:

  1. Adolf Hitler- Was born in Branua, Austria on April 20th, 1889. Was rejected by the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts when trying to pursue his dream of becoming an artist, he then became a corporal in WWI and won the Iron Cross.
  2. Joseph Stalin- Was the Soviet dictator from 1925-1953, during this time he set up a totalitarian state in which the governmetn controlled every part of its peoples' lives including political, social and economic.
  3. Benito Mussolini- sdgsdfgsdfgsd Mussolini was appointed the Prime Minister be King Victor Emmanuel II, he later called himself Duce II and became a dictator from 1922-1945 and installed the OVRA a fascist secret police.
  4. Jesse Owens- asd In the Berlin Olympics of 1936 Jesse Ownes puts an end to the belief that Aryans are the dominant race, a idea Hitler incorporated into many of his speeches.
  5. Francisco Franco- In the Spanish Civil War that lasted from 1936-1939 General Francisco Franco lead the Nationalist Party and gained Italian and German aid inthe war.
  6. Chiang Kai-shek- Was the President of the Rebublic of China from 1928-1946 and was the leader of the Chinese Nationalist Party.
  7. Anton Drexler- In 1919 was the founder of the Nazi Party, which Hitler then joined in 1920 and in the fall of 1921 challenged Drexler for control of the Nazi Party.
  8. John Maynard Keynes- Lead the British economists in 1936 and was insturmental inthe deficit spending of the governments funds by by borrowing money instead of taxing the people.
  9. Joseph Goebbels- Was the Minister Propaganda in Germany and controlled the press, radio, posters, etc.
  10. Emperor Hirohito- erf Was the Emperor of Japan from 1926-1989, and was the ruler during the Showa Period which means "Bright Peace" which lasted from 1926-1945.










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Soldiers from WW2
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Nazi Symbol: The Swastika



Terms:Ruhr Valley: Germany's chief industrial and mining center. France planned to collect reperations by operating and using th Ruhr mines and factories.Dawes Plan: Named after the american banker who chaired the commission, first reduced reparations. This coordinated Germany's annual payments with its ability to pay.Depression: This is a period of low economic activity and rising unemployment. This happened in Europe during 1924 and ended in a economic collapse that became known as the Great Depression.Collective Bargaining: The right of unions to negotiate with employers over wages and hours. The French New Deal gave these options to workers. Included 40-hour weeks, two-week paid vacation, and a minimum wage.Deficit Spending: Having to go into debt. The British Government should have to do this because of unemployment within their country.Fascism: Political philosophy. Glorifies the state above the individual by emphazising the need for a strong central government led by a dictorial leader.Squadristi: Blackshirts. in 1920 and 1921, Mussolini formed bands of black-shirted, armed Facists. They attacked socialist offices and newspapers.OVRA: Secret Police. In 1926, the Fascists outlawed all other political parties in Italy and established a secret police. By the end of the year, Mussolini ruled Italy as Il Duce.New Economic Policy: (NEP) This was a modified version of the old capitalist system. Peasents were allowed to sell their produce openly. This happened in March of 1921.Enabling Act: This law gave the government the power to ignore the constitution for four years while it issued laws to deal with the country's problems.This happened on March, 23 1933.



For More Information:

Adolf Hitler- facts about Hitler and a brief biography.
Joseph Stalin- facts about Stalin and a brief biography.
Benito Mussolini- a short biography on Mussolin and his effect on the 2nd world war.
World War 2- A timeline, facts and some of the events of World War 2.
WW2 for kids- Some facts and a timeline for World War 2.
The Great Depression- A short overview on the events of the Great Depression.
Adolf Hitler and The Nazi Party- how the nazi party was formed and how Hitler rose to power.
Kristallnacht- About the "Night of Broken Glass"
Kristallnacht Facts For Kids- facts about Kristallnacht and some of the events that lead up to Kristallacht.
Enabling Acts- Some of the reasons for the Enabling Acts and how they were instrumental in putting Hitler in power.