1550-1825Kaylee, Eliza, Hannah
The Royal Science Academy: Founded during the year 1666 in France.

The scientific revolution was all based around new philosophers creating new ideas. New discoveries and ideas were being made every day by some of the best minds in history,including Nicholas Copernicus, Galileo, and Newton. They along with other great minds were considered Philosophes, the french name for intellectuals during this time. They made discoveries in math, astronomy, chemistry, and anatomy. Philsophes also used new ways of thinking to create these new ideas. They used inductive reasoning and rationalism, along with the scientific method. During the scientific revolution though, not only experimental ideas were being argued but also ideas on how the human mind thinks and develops. This time period was called the Enlightenment.There was no way to prove whose arguements were correct about the human mind but many philosophes made their case clear.
Some of the most important discoveries of the time period include both scientific and enlightenment ideas. Nicholas Copernicus discovered that the universe is heliocentric (Earth-centered), and laid down the foundation of today's universe. Galileo was a mathetician who published a book explaining the movement of Earth and other planets in the universe. Then there was Newton whose whole arguement was the universal law of gravitation. Newton changed how the world was looked at for years to come because of his ideas and remarkable discoveries. Although, the enlightenment discoveries are just as remarkable. The concepts of the Enlightenment are reason,natural law, hope, happiness, and progress. John Locke and Newton were the two most influential during this time and the two that really put the concepts into action. Locke argued that every human was born with a blank mind and were molded by the experience they had. Newton argued that the physical world and everything in it was like a giant machine. Neither of these philosophers concepts could be proven but they still had the biggest impact on the seventeenth century.
Although the arts, science, and the enlightenment were still flourishing, some countries could not avoid conflict. In 1740 a major war broke out over Austrian succession of the throne. The war went on for seven years, therefore it was named the Seven Years War. Allies had been formed and taken apart and then formed again during this time. This particular war caused France to abandon Prussia and unite with Austria, this caused Russia to then also join their alliance. Britain in return allied with Prussia. Although, the war was destructive in many areas, the three main areas of conflict were Europe, India, and North America. The European war ended in 1763 with all territories being returned to their original owners. The Indian war ended with the Treaty of Paris, in which the French withdrew and left India to the British. Finally, the war in North America ended with France transferring Canada and the lands east of the Mississippi to England. The French also gave their Luisiana Purchase to the Spanish in return for their alliance. By the end of the Seven Years War, France had finally fallen and Britain had become the world's most powerful colonial force.

Denis Diderot

Johannes Kepler

James Wolfe
Mary Wollstonecraft


Geocentric: Places the Earth at the center of the
Galileo: Invented the telescope during this time period.
Ptolemaic system: Universe is a series of concentric spheres.
Heliocentric: Sun-centered, conception of the universe offered more accurate explanation.
Rationalism: Thought based on the belief that reason is chief source of knowledge.
Inductive Reasoning: Proceed from the particular to the general.
Philosophe: “philosopher” Intellectuals of the Enlightment, French name.
Deism: 18th century religious philosophy based on reason and natural law.
Social Contract: Entire society agrees to be governed be its general will.
Salon: Elegant drawing rooms of wealthy upper class’s great urban houses.
Mestizos: Offspring of Europeans and Africa-American.

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Issac Newton: Created the universal law of gravitation.
ey People from the Era
Nicholas Copernicus: Born in Poland, believed that the universe was heliocentric or sun-centered. He thought Ptolemy’s theory incorrect and published his book On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres.
Isaac Newton: Was born in 1642 and studied at Cambridge University. He wrote the three laws of motion which were included in his most famous work the Principia.
Galileo Galilei: Was a teacher and taught math. He discovered many things about the planets such as sunspots and that there are mountains on the moon.
Ptolemy: Developed a theory that said earth was the center of the universe, this was called the Ptolemaic system. This system is also known as geocentric.
Johannes Kelper: A German Mathmatician, took the next step in disproving the Ptolemaic System and developed his laws in planetary motion he also proved that the planets orbits around the sun are elliptical.
Denis Diderot: Attended the university of Paris to become a lawyer or a person that worked in the church, but he became a writer instead and his most famous work was the Encyclopedia.
James Wolfe: In 1759 serving as a general in the British army, James Wolfe defeated the French in the battle that took place on the plains of Abraham, however this was also the place he died.
Francis Bacon: Was an English philosopher and created the scientific method based on his thoughts about inductive reasoning being used to learn more about the workings of nature.
Mary Wollstonecraft: This lady of the era was made famous because she published her literary work called A Vindication of the Rights of Women.
Galen: An ancient Greek Physician whose theories were the most widely excepted during this era, he is also famous for his theory that sickness was all caused by an imbalance of fluids.

For more Information:

Scientific Revolution- Some of the famous theories and ideas that later lead to important inventions and scientific laws used today.

The Age of Enlightenment- More events of the era that also had a great impact on the world today.

The Inventions of Galileo- Some of his greatest inventions and his contributions to theories about the shape and movement of the planets.

Achievements of Copernicus - Futher explains why he was an important individual from the era and some of the accomplishments he made.

Inventions of the Scientific Revolution - This website will go over the inventions and ideas of the Scientific Revolution and how they are used today.

Francis BaconAbout Francis Bacon and some of the literature in the era.

Newton's LawsSome of the laws that Newton created in this time are used by NASA and shown on this site.

The Constitution of the USThis site explains some of the contents of the constitution of the united states and how it came to be.

Diderot and the EncyclopediaAbout Denis Diderot and how he created the encyclopedia.

The Seven Years WarSome more information about the Seven Years War.


1543: Nicholas Copernicus presents a new wiew of the universe

1620: Francis Bacon publishes the Novum Organum

1633: The Church condemns Galileo's teachings

1666: Royal Academy of Science founded in France

1687: Isaac Newton publishes the Principia

1751: Diderot becoomes the editor of the Encyclopedia

1759: James Wolfe dies in battle outside Quebec, Canada

1763: The Seven Year's War ends

1776: American colonies delcare independence from Britian

1788: The Constitution of the United States is ratified by nine states

1792: Mary Wollstonecraft publishes A Vindication of the Rights of Women

Potolemy's Theory: His theory was that the planets orbited Earth.

Nicholas Copernicus: Was the first to publish a theory on how the universe looked.