1917Kaylee, Eliza, Hannah
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World War I came fast and destrustive for Russia, as they were not prepared military or technology wise. They had no competent military leaders and the leader at the time, Czar Nicholas II, insisted on taking charge despite his lack of ability. Along with not having a successful leader. Russia's economy was not able to produce the amount of weapons needed to fight. These issues led to incredible losses during the war for Russia. By 1917, the will of the country to fight had diminished to almost nothing. With the will to fight over, the monarchy was not being looked upon as a great government anymore. Czar Nicholas's wife was being influenced by a claimed "holy man" named Grigori Rasputin, which was causing issues, and the czar himself was not taking charge. The Russian people finally made the decision to execute Rasputin in December of 1916, in hope of creating a better monarchy without his influence. But even with Rasputin being dead the monarchy was too far damaged to save.

Revolutions started in March of 1917. It started with a series of strikes led by working class women, while they marched out of their factories in the capital city of Petrograd. This first major strike was caused by the government's decision to ration bread after the price had already rocketed. Over 10,00 women marched through Petrograd soon gaining the support of other workers. Czar Nicholas ordered the strikes to be ended under any means necessary, but the soldiers ordered to do this soon supported the workers as well. With Czar Nicholas's power being questioned the legislative body created a provisional government. This government made the decision to urge the Czar to step down, which eventually led to Nicholas II leaving his position and ending the 300 year Romanov dynasty. The provisional government took charge of decisions and soon decided to stay in the war for Russia's honor. This only made the people more upset though, and the revolutions continued.

A group known as the Bolsheviks came under the power of V.I Lenin in 1917. Under his power the Bolsheviks became a political party dedicated to violent revolution. They promised to end the war, the redistribution of land to peasants, the transfer of factories, and the transfer of government power from the provisional governement to the soviets. They seized the Winter Palace on November 6,1917 and overthrew the government. He put the power into the Council of People's Commissars, which was headed by him, and realized that his promise of peace would be hard to atain. He soon realized Russia would have to lose territory and signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in 1918 with Germany. Many opposed this new regime and soon a force of anti-communists rose up against the communism party. This started a civil war from 1918 through 1921. In 1920 the major anti-communism forces fell to the Communist forces and by 1921 the Communist regime regained control. During the war the communist transformed Russia into a centralized state dominated by a single party. The Communists were in complete control by 1921.

Terms:Soviets: Were councils composed of representives from the workers and soldiers. The Soviet of Petrograd was formed in 1917. Also sprang up in army units, factory towns, and rural areas.War Communism: Was used to ensure regular supplies for the Red Army. Government control of banks and most industries, the seizing of peasents, and centralization of state administration under Communist control.Petrograd: Formerly St. Petersburg. Series of strikes led by working women went on broke here in the capitol city of which was called the March Revolution.Communist: a person who is regarded as supporting politically leftist or subversive causes.The Duma: Legislative body. Czar had tried to dissovle but they met anyways and established the provisional government.Bolsheviks: This group began as a small marxist that was called the russian socail democrats. Came under the leadership of V.I. Lenin.Anti-Communist: They were against the communist army. They were aided by the allies during the war and attacked Westward and advanced to the Volga River.Cheka: New communist secret police. They began the Red Terror aimed at the destruction of all those that opposed the new regime.Red Terror: Much like Reign of Terror in French Revolution. It began by the Cheka added an elemnet of fear to the communist regime.Hemophilia: Deficiency in the ability of the blood to clot. Alexis who is the heir to the throne of the Russian monarchy had this diesase.

Historical Quote: " Here the actions of working-class women helped to change the course of Russian history."

-Vladimir Lenin

  1. Vladimir Lenin- Was the founder of the Russian Communist party the Bolsheviks and was exiled from Russia, until he retuned to lead the revolution.
  2. Czar Nicholas II- Last Czar of Russia, married Alexandra Romanov, abdicated the thrown on March 15, 1917 when he saw he had lost the respect of his army.
  3. Grigori Rasputin- Was an uneducated holy man and the Czarina trusted him to take care of her hemophiliac son, Alexei. Rasputin was soon after assassinated by being poisoned, beaten, shot and drowned.
  4. Peter Stolypin- Stolypin was a Russian Prime Minister and installed a new justice system to further his own ends. Many were hanged, exspecially his political opponents, and the noose became known as the "Stolypin Necktie" in Russia.
  5. Czarina Alexandra- Was the wife of Nicholas II, was not popular among her people as she was a German and there were rumors that she drugged the Czar and forced him to make certain decisions.
  6. Leon Trotsky- Was the chairman of Petrograd Soviet, and was also the leader of the Red Army who started the Red Scare. He made the Red Army far more disciplined and shot down all deserters.
  7. Alexander Kenersky- Was the Prime Minister of Russia and kept Russia in the war to perserve its honor, he also imprisoned the royal family and was a member of Duma.
  8. Bolsheviks- A party of Russian communists founded by Vladimir Lenin and followed him during the Russian Revolution.
  9. Grand Dutchess Anastasia- Was the daughter of Nicholas II and Alexandra, was executed at Lenin's command along with the rest of her family, but was not buried in the same place. Because of this, while her remains were missing there was speculation that she may have survived the assassination attempt.
  10. Alexei Romanov- The son of Nicholas II and Alexandra, was a hemphiliac and was treated by the holy man Grigori Rasputin. When his father abdicated the thrown he did not leave it to Alexei because of his condition so the Duma ruled Russia for a time.

Grigori Rasputin: holy man and friend of the Czarina Alexandra
Vladimir Lenin
Bishop Fulton Sheen

Treaty of Versailles
Russian Revolution
Pushkin Palace
Russian Flag
The Czarina Alexandra Romanov
Czar Nicholas II

For More Information:
Russian Revolution- Some brief facts about the Russian Revolution.
Russian Revolution Timeline- Some of the major events of the era.
Russian Revolution For Kids-More facts about the Russian Revolution.
Czar Nicholas II- A biography on Nicholas II's and his reign.
Vladimir Lenin-A biography on Vladimir Lenin and his Achievements.
Treaty of Versailles- An overview of the Treaty of Versailles.
World War 1- The aftermath of the first world war and how it lead to the Russian Revolution.
Leon Trotsky- A biography on Leon Trotsky.
Czarina Alexandra- A biography on her life.
Grigori Rasputin- A biography on the holy man's life and how he was assassinated.