india_in.gif
Kaylee, Eliza, Hannah1960-1990"You should be the change that you want to see in the world." -Gandhi


Indian Independence started with India's Mahatma, Mohandas Gandhi. Gandhi came to South Africa and became involved in fighting against discrimination against the Indians, who were both being oppressed by the British and the Boers.He remained in South Africa until 1914 where he founded the Natal Indian Congress and the Indian Medical Corps. Indian Medical Corps fought on the British side during the Boer War. The British eventually defeated the Boers and conquered the rest of Boers republics. Although Gandhi had been on the British side, after World War I the British had began to crack down on Indian civil liberties, which caused Gandhi to establish nonviolent protests.One protest turned bad though when British troops started to gun down inocent Indian protesters. This was named the Amritsar Massacre, and greatly encouraged the idea of self-rule being needed. Gandhi soon after organized large scale campaigns which imprisoned him. Once released in 1930, he wrote the Declaration of Independence for India and led the Salt March. His protests were overall effective, as they led to the creation of the Government of India Act and the Indian National Congress. Though Indian Independence was on the move, once World War II broke out India began overwhelmed with violence and many leaders including Gandhi went to prison. This caused the British to feel the need to rid of India as soon as possible. The head of the Muslim League disagreed with this decision and proposed a separate state for India's muslims should be created. To Gandhi's distress, the British agreed and Pakistan was established. India broke out into terror and though Gandhi tried to calm the countrym his efforts were useless. He was then assainated by a journalists. India mourned the loss of their "Great Soul."

Godse had hoped that Gandhi's death would lead to war between India and Pakistan and the elimination of the Muslim state. Instead, it led to peace, as Hindus and Muslims alike joined in mourning for the slain Mahatma. Indeed, the entire world mourned: flags were lowered to half-mast, and kings, popes, and presidents sent condolences to India. Gandhi had used Calcutta riots to fight for peace towards the end of his lif. Heclaimed he would fast until the riots ended.The fast lasted three days. but, violence throughout the country still continued. Gandhi had started another fast "unto death" or until peace was in Delhi, which lasted five days. Leaders had promised to make peace to end the fast. Ganhi's dreams of peace were never truly fulfilled but his influences changed more thaever thought possible by other leaders.He created a better life for Indians just by showing his beliefs in nonviolent protests and declarations.

After Gandhi's death the nationalists of the Indian National Congress fought for independence, but they were, and always would be, a Westernized elite, out of touch with the vast masses inhabiting the real India. Even into the 21st century, India's new leader Nehru aspired to establish India as an industrialiazd state, and eventually a nuclear state. Leaving no room for focus on keeping peace. Overall, to the Indian people, Gandhi gave a nation. To the world, he gave satyagraha, arguably the most revolutionary idea of a long and ravaged century. He showed that political change could be affected by renouncing violence; that unjust laws could be defied peacefully and with a readiness to accept punishment; that "soul-force," as much as armed force, could bring down an empire. In some sense, Gandhi's greatest achievement lay in his legacy; for his ideals, and the example he provided in living them out, inspired, and continue to inspire, people of all nations to take up the peaceful struggle for freedom from oppression.

















Create your free online surveys with SurveyMonkey, the world's leading questionnaire tool.


Terms:Mahatma: This was considered to be called the "Great Soul". Mohandas Gandhi had begun a movement to Indian self-rule before World War I.Civil Disobedience: This was a refusal to obey laws considered to be unjust by the British. Gandhi had protested agaisnt all these laws.Armistar: British troops killed hundreds of un-armed protesters in this city of Armistar. This country was in the northwestern India.Salt March: This was when Britain had increased the taxes on salt. Because of them doing so Gandhi led a "strike" along the sea to protest this.Pakistan: This was considered to be "The Land of the Pure". Beginning to believe in the creation of a seperate muslim state. This state was within Pakistan.Muslim League: This was formed in the 1930's. Under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, he also believed in the seperate muslim state.Government of India Act: In 1935 this act expanded the rold of Indians within the governing process. This was passed in Britian since they had control overI India at this time.Indian National Congress: (INC). Founded in 1885 to seek out reforms in Britian's government of India. A broad based political party within India that believed in independence.Sikhs: Followers of a religion based on both Hinduism and Muslim ideas. The growing of ethinc and religious strife became a big problem within India.Punjab: Sikhs lived here. This was the northern province, they wanted it to be independent. Gandhi refuesed to it becoming independent and he used military force to enable this.

Timeline:1885: The Indian National Congress (INC) was founded to seek refroms in Britian's government of India.1930: Britian had introduced measures on increasing their taxes on salt. Gandhi protested agasint this.1930: The muslim league were beginning to believe in the creation of a seperate Muslim state of Pakistan.1935: The Government of India Act is passed.August 15, 1947: India and Pakistan beame independent. Millions of hindus and muslims fled across the new borders.1966: Indira Gandhi was elected as the prime minister of Indida.1971: East Pakistan becomes independent. It became the new nation of Bangladesh.1984: Gandhi refused for Punjab to become independent and he used forces to seek out the sikhs that were in the golden temple.2002: India-Pakistan fighting over Kashmir starts to escalate.2002: East Timor wins independence from Indonesia.



II-4_Indira.png
II-5_Rajiv.png
Rajiv Gandhi
II-6_Jawaharlal.png
Jawaharlal Nehru



II-7.gif
Map of India
II-8_Achmed_Sukarno.jpg
Achmed Sukarno



II-9_Ho_chi.png
Ho Chi Minh



People:

  1. President Ferinand Marcos- Was overthrown in 198-0by his people because he was accused of killing his rival, Benigo Aquino. Marcos fled the coountry when a public uprising broke out against him.
  2. Jawaharlal Nehru- Led the Congress Party after Pakistan and India were seperated into two states. Like Gandhi, he had fought for Indian Independence and hhe was a popular Prime Minister among his people with bold new ideas.
  3. Achmed Sukarno- He set up an Indonesian Republic who wanted independence from the Netherlands, which they were granted soon after the United States backed them up.
  4. Mother Teresa- Was a Catholic missionary that helped the sick, poor and dying in India during the large population growth it experienced in the 1950s-1960s.
  5. Indira Gandhi- Was the daughter of Nehru and assumed his place as Prime Minister after his death. she was in office from 1966-1984, during which there was a large population growth resulting in poverty.
  6. Rajiv Gandhi- Was the son of Indira Gandhi and was placed in office after his mother was assassinated by two Sikh guards and stayed in office from 1984-1989, but was assassinated in 1991.
  7. Ho Chi Minh- Led a small communist party in Vietnam and after the Vietminh took over most of Vietnam he became the president of a provisional government.
  8. Pol Pot- Was a dictator in Cambodia and was responsible for the deaths of over a million Cambodians. He also was a communist and the "Domino Theory" was disproven when other surrounding nations didn't also become communist.
  9. President Johnson- He sent troops to South Vietnam to prevent the spread of communism and to stop the "Domino Effect" they still believed would take place if one country turned to communism.
  10. President Richard Nixon- In the 1960s with the stalemate between North and South Vietnam, Nixon signed anagreement with North Vietnam in 1973 at the Paris Peace Accords, allowing the U.S. to pull the troops from Vietnam.


II-3_Pot_Pol.jpg
Pot Pol


II-10_Ferdinand.png
President Ferdinand Marcos
II-1.jpg
Mohandes Gandhi
II-2.png
Mother Teresa
For More Information:Ferdinand Marcos- Brief BiographyMother Teresa- How she helped those in needVietnam War- A timeline highlighting key eventsPatition of India- The separation of India and PakistanMohandes Gandhi- A biography on Mohandes GandhiRichard Nixon- A biography on President Richard NixonArmitsar- About the Armitsar Massacre and why it happenedSalt March- About the protest Gandhi ledGovernment of India Act- An overview of what it meant for IndiaMuslim League- About this political party