Eliza Strouse, Kaylee Stock, Hannah Hamilton1810-1860

European Nationalism
This era was all about a switch in the European economy due to the change from an agricultural system to one that depended on industrial machines and factories. This change happened because of many things, but the following are the most important; farming and transporting the goods was made easier, the population grew so the workforce grew, the land was rich with natural resources, and last markets and exporting to other countries gave the manufacturers places to sell their goods. Europe also had money to spend on machines and factories. People that were looking to invest their money in a new business or a way to make profit from an idea were known as entrepreneurs. Most importantly the citizens and workers developed a sense of pride in their country and this was called Nationalism. However these were not the only changes there were also many inventions and improved machines that helped along this economic shift.

Some of the machines invented were the cotton gin, the “flying shuttle”, the spinning jenny, railroads and the steam-powered locomotive. The first three directly applied to the production of cotton. The cotton gin was made to make the removal of the seed in the cotton faster and easier. The flying shuttle was made so that more cloth could be weaved at a faster rate. James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny in 1764 which made thread for the weavers to make into cloth. Railroads were also an invention of the era and building them was the source of many jobs. The locomotive was an important invention because it improved the transportation of goods and resources. These inventions made some of the changes in the economic system possible and here are some of the ways they affect us today.

The disputes and troubles these early laborers faced paved the way for workers today and helped create laws that protect the workers well being. For example child labor laws and minimum wage laws that keeps the workplace safe and fair. Also many of the inventions from this era are still used today and are important in distributing and mass-producing goods. Lastly nationalism has had a great effect on countries in the world today.

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Terms:Conservatism: Political Philosphy. Arrangements worked out at the Congress of Vienna was a victory for rulers who wanted to contain forcces of change unleashed by the French Revolution.Balance of Power: Great Britian, Russia, Prussia, and Austria. Agreed to meet at times in confrences to mantain steps to keep peace throughout Europe.Concert of Europe: The meetings that happened thoughout time between the balances of power were called this. They happened every year r so.Liberalism: Political Philosphy based largely on Enlightenment principles, that people should be free as possible from government constraint.German Confederation: Congress of Vienna in 1815 had recognized the exsitence of 28 independent German states. Part of these was Austria and Prussia, the rest varied in size.Multinational State: Collection of different peoples, including Germans, Czechs, Magyars (Hungarians), Slovaks and much more. Which was what the Austrian empire was made up of.Red Shirts: New leader of Italy, Giuseppe Garibaldi a dedicated italian patriot, raised an army of 1000 volunteers. They were called this because of the color of their uniforms.Realpolitik: Based on pratical matters rather than theory or ethics. "Politics of Reality" Otto von Bismarck was very big on this theory.Sedan: September 2, 1870, an entire French army and the French ruler, Napoloeon II, were captured. The southern German states and their alliances all teamed up on France and took over.Emancipation: Serfdom was the largest problem in czarist Russia. March 3, 1861, Alexander issued an edict which freed the serfs. Peasents could now own their own land and marry as they choose.

PeopleNapolean III- called the Emperor of the French, nephew of Napolean I and was elected president of the Second Empire in 1851Czar Alexander II- Emperor of the Russian Empire, issued an emancipation edict which freed the serfs, also attempted other reforms but none made the citizens happyKlemens von Metternich- made Austrian foreign minister in 1809,claimed to be guided at Vienna by the principle of legitimacyKing Frederick William II- King of Prussia, during his reign he cut down the expenses of the royal establishments and oppressed the abuses of his late reignQueen Victoria- reign was the longest in England history and lasted from 1837 to 1901,her sense of duty and moral respectability reflected the attitude of her citizens, her time of reign was known as the Victorian AgeCharles Talleyrand- French foreign minister, was involved in XYZ Affair in which he accepted a $250,000 bribe from American president John AdamsLouis XVIII- appointed King of France by the Congress of Vienna, was exiled for 23 years during the French Revolution and the First French EmpireCharles X- younger brother of Louis XVIII, reigned from 1824-1830 and was the last of the bourbon kings of France, tried to restore absolue royal authorityLouis Phillipe- known as the Citizen King, ran a Bourgeoisie Monarch, first king to dress like the middle class and relate easily to the middle class citizensLouis Blanc- leader of the Socialist Party, called for the creation of coorperatives in order to gain employment for the urban poor

Biography- biography of Napolean IIIBiography- biography of Queen VictoriaSummary- overview of nationalism in Europe and its impactimeline-timeline of the Age of NationalismSummary-overview of the July revolution of 1848Pictures-images of Old EuropeBiography- biography of Klemens von MetternichVideo- video giving an overview of natonalism in EuropeSummary- closer look at the Revolution of 1848Summary- summary of the book Les Miserables by Victor Hugo

Timeline1804-Serbian Revolution which is when this territory evolved from an Ottoman Province into a constitutional monarchy1815- Congress of Vienna was created to maintain balance of power in Europe1821-29-Greek declaration of National independence and revolution against Ottoman Empire1830-31- Belgian Revolution which led to the secession of the Southern provinces from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands1846- uprising in Greater Poland; this was a planned military insurrection by the Poles against the Prussian forces1848- Nationalist revolts in Hungary, Italy, and Germany1859-61- Italy unified; this was a social and political movement that agglomerated different states of the Italian Penisula1863- Polish National revolt; this began as a protest by young Poles against the Imperial Russian Army1866-71- Germany is officially unified on January 18 1871 at the Palace of Versailles1878- Congress of Berlin granted independence after they won the war against the Ottoman Empire

Revolution of 1848

map of Europe

cartoon of nationalism

Queen Victoria
July Revolution

Charles X

Czar Alexander II

Klemens von Metternich
Congress of Vienna