Elizabeth I

Crisis and Absolutism in Europe started around 1560 through 1715. It began with the religions of Catholicism and Calvinism becoming militant religions. Their agressiveness and struggle to win over Europeans was the main cause of war during the sixteenth century. Not only did religion cause issues during this time though. Social, economic, and political issues also contributed to the conflicts in Europe. The biggest conflict that occured during this time was the French Civil War. The war was between the Catholics and the French Hugeonot Calvinists. The French were outnumbered but held back the Catholics for years. The fighting finally ended when Henry of Navarre of the Hugeunots, succedded the throne of Henry IV. He converted to Catholic after realizing he would never be accepted by Catholic France and when he was crowned in 1594 the end of the war was unveiled. Henry of Navarre also declared the Edict of Nantes, which was declared to stop the religious problems. The edict stated Catholicism as the official religion of France, but gave the right to worship and enjoy political privileges to the Hugueonots.

The Age of Elizabeth was called the Golden Age and is when England reached it's height in power. It was during the reign of Queen Elizabeth the 1st, who came to power in 1558. Elizabeth was name "the only supreme governor" under the Act of Supremacy, which made gave her the rule over the church and also the state. She focused on balancing power in Europe but eventually could not avoid conflict with Spain. Philip II of Spain sent a Spanish Armada in 1588 to invade England, but returned to Spain unsuccessful, and with Queen Elizabeth still in power. Other conflicts continued to arise with the power struggles throughout Europe. In1618, the Thirty Years War began in the lands of the Holy Roman Empire. It was a struggle between Catholics and French Protestants and the last of the major religious wars throughout history. The war raged on for thirty years until the Peace of Westphalia ended the war in 1648. The Peace of Westphalia stated that all German states could determine their own religion. This brought an end to the Holy Roman Empire as a political state and France emerged as the dominant nation in Europe. Over the next years, rebellions and civil wars continued to be trouble for Europe. The English Civil War is the most famous from this time. It was a war between the Parliament, led by Oliver Cromwell, and the Cavaliers, or king's men. Oliver Cromwell led the Parliamentary forces to victory but monarchy was eventually restored.

Also during the seventeenth century,absolutism was a major system in the government. The perfect example of absolutism was the ruler of Louis the XIV. He bulit the Palace of Versailles and had control over the central policy-making machinery of governement. He declared four wars during his reign and set up a member of his own dynasty in Spain. His reign ended in 1715, with his death. During his reign though Frederick William the Great Elector had set up a German state power called Prussia. Prussia became a powerful European force along with the development of the new Austrian Empire. Overall, empires,rulers, and nations rose and fell during crisis and absolutism in Europe.

Militant: (Combative) Calvinism and Catholicism became this.Hugeunots: French Protestants influenced by John Calvin.
Absolutism: System which a ruler holds complete power.
Czar: The russian word for Ceasear.
Armada: Fleet of warships that invaded England
Inflation: A rise in prices. Major econmic problem in these times.
Witchcraft: (Magic) Was part of traditional village culture for centuries.
Roundheads: Supported the Paraliament. Called this because of their hair.
Puritans: Protestants in England inspired by Calvinist ideas.
Commonwealth: Paraliament abolished Monarchy and declared England republic.

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Oliver Cromwell

Cardinal Richelieu

Important People:
Cardinal Richelieu: At the age of twenty-one was made a bishop and was only made a cardinal after his death by Pope Gregory XV.Gustavus Adolphus: The king of Sweden, used the firearms of the time in the thirty-years war he also used various military tactics that changed the war.Charles II: Was the son of Charles I and was the monarch during the age of restoration, he was sympathetic to Catholics and when he tried to change the laws in their favor parliment vetoed his action.Elizabeth I: Became Queen of England in 1558 and was said to be the greatest monarch England has ever known, she got this title by changing the Catholic-favoring laws and ruling the country as a moderate protestant. Charles I: Was the son of James I and following in his father's footsteps he believed in the divine right of kings and disregarded anything to do with parliment this lead to his execution in 1660.Mary Stuart: Elizabeth Tudor's half-sister, was a devout Catholic and plotted to steal Elizabeth I's throne, when elizabeth discovered this she had Mary beheaded.James I: Was the father of Charles I and believed in the divine right of kings which lead to instability during his reign.Oliver Cromwell: Parliments army the roundheads flourished under oliver Cromwell's military strategies and ideas, after killing the king and dispersing parliment he set up a military dictatorship.Louis XIV: Also known as the "Sun King" he built the Palace of Versailles to prove his dominance over nature because the building site was marsh-like land that took much time and resources to develope.Frederick William: Also known as the "Great Elector", built up the Prussian army to defend the vulnerable land, and to pay for and sustain the army he had built he levied taxes.

Francis Drake
Europe during this era
Michael Romanov

For More Information:

Elizabeth TudorThis site provides more information about Elizabeth I and her reign.
Frederick WilliamMore information about Frederick William and his time as the second king of Prussia.
Oliver CromwellThis site has a biography about Oliver Cromwell and the many British civil wars that took place during his time.
Louis XIV This site is entirely about Lousi XIV and his life including portraits and many other facts about his reign.
Absolutism in EuropeThis website has more information on the absolution era.
Cardinal RichelieuThis webpage gives an overview of the cardinal's life and some of the most important events of the era.
Gustavus AdolphusThis is more information about the famous Gustavus Adolphus.
Charles IThis is a biography on Charles I's life and achievements.
Mary StuartA biography on Mary Stuart: The Queen of The Scots.
The Golden AgeMore about Elizabeth I's reign.

Frederick William
1520: Mannerism movement begins in Italy
1558: Elizabeth I becomes queen of England
1566: Violence erupts between Calvinisnts and Catholics in the Netherlands
1598: French Wars of Religion end
1618: Thirty Year's Wat begins in Germany
1648: Peace of Westphalia ends Thirty Year's War
1689: Toleration Act of 1689 is passed in English Parliament
1701: Frederick I becomes kind of Prussia

Louis XIV
Louis XIV