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Kaylee, Eliza, Hannah
1921-1980
"Without the efforts of the Chinese Communist Party, without the Chinese Communists as the mainstay of the Chinese people, China can never achieve independence and liberation, or industrialization and the modernization of her agriculture." -Mao


By 1920, China was being driven by two political forces. Sun Yat-sen's Nationalists and the Communist party. Three years later the two parties joined together to try to rid of the imperialists in China. Over the years, they worked together and trained and mobilized a revolutionary army. Their goal was to march North and seize control China. This was named the Northern Expediton and began the summer of 1926. The revolutionary army took control of all of China south of Yangtze River. Though they took control of much of the territory they desired, the two parties soon began to have tension. When Sun Yet-sen died in 1925 he was succeeded by Chiang Kai-shek. He pretended to support the communists but soon turned on them. He struck against them and all their supporters in Shangai, killing thousands in what is known as the Shangai Massacre. After this, the Communist-Nationalist alliance dissolved. Chiang founded a new republic at Nanjing and worked to reunify China.After the Shangai Massacre, most communist leaders went into hiding within the city. Many fled to Jiangxi Province, which was south of Chiang Jiang. They were led by a yound communist named Mao Zedong. He believed that a Chinese revolutinwould need to be led by the peasants of the country. Mao soon gained many followers and Chiang Kai-shek turned his forces against the communists once again. Numbers were on Kai-shek's side but Mao guerrilla tactics made it difficult for Kai-shek's forces to succeed. Kai-shek's troops then surrounded the communist base in Jiangxia. but Mao's army, named the People's Liberation Army, broke through Nationalists lines and began the famous Long March. Mao's army traveled almost 6,000 miles to reach the last surviving communist base. In the course of the march Mao was named the sole leader of communist China. While this was happening chian Kai-shek was trying to build a new naton. He announced a period of political training to prepare the Chinese people for the final step to a constitutional government. He set up the New Life Movement and tried to influence civiliation with new western ideas. Overall, Chiang Kai-shek had some success but also many downfalls.

By 1945, China had two governments, Chiang's Nationalist party and Mao's communist party. Full out war broke out between the two parties. By 1949, Mao's army, or the People's Liberation Army, defeated Chiang's army. The communist party now ruled China. the Chinese government launched a program to build a socialist society. Mao established the Great Leap Foward to speed up economic growth. It turned out to be a disaster. Once this happened mao believed only permanent revolution could enable the chinese to overcome the past and achieve the final stage of communism. He created many new movements to achieve his goal, but many failed. When Mao died in 1976, a group of reformers, led by Deng Xiaoping, seized power and brought the Cultural revolution to an end. The government began to follow the policy of Four Modernizations which focused on four differnet areas. Overall, modernization worked and industrial output skyrocketed. Though, Deng had many achievements many people complained that they still didn't have democracy. this led to demonstrations in Tiananmen Square,many being protests.





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Map of China





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Communist China Flag







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President Harry Truman

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Mao Zedong
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Chiang Kai-shek

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Henry Pu Yi



Terms:
Northern Expedition: The Northern Expedition was a military campaign led by the Guomindang from 1926 to 1928. Its main objective was to unify China under the Guomindang banner by ending the rule of local warlords.
Shanghai Massacre: In April 1927, Chiang struck agaisnt the communisnts and their supporters in Shanghai, killing thousands. The Communist-Nationalist alliance ceased to exsist.
Guerrilla Tactics: Using unexpected manuverus like sabotage and subterfuge to fight the enemy. Mao used this tactic against Chiang's forces.
Long March: This was led by Mao Zedong. He had become the sole leader of the Chinese Communist Party during this march. His forces marched to the other side of the country to the last place of communism in China.
PLA: (Peoples Liberation Army). This was the name of Mao's army. They broke through the Nationalist lines and they began their journney of the long march.
New Life Movement: With his U.S. educated wife, Chiang set up this movement. It's goal was to promote traditional Confucian socail ethics, such as integrity, propriety and rightousness.
Little Red Book: A book circulated throughout China during the reign of Mao Zedong, which contained his political philosophy for China. It was required reading in all schools.
Great Leap Forward: The Great Leap Forward of the People's Republic of China (PRC) was an economic and social campaign of the Chinese Communist Party (CPC). This was a diaster in China. The peasents hated this new system.
Communes: Exsisting collective farms, normally the size of a village, were combined together. Each commune contained more than thirty thousand people who lived and worked together.
Four Olds: The Four Olds or the Four Old Things were Old Customs, Old Culture, Old Habits, and Old Ideas. One of the stated goals of the Cultural Revolution in the People's Republic of China was to bring an end to the Four Olds


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Dalai Lama

Timeline:
1921: Chinese Communism Party is formed in Shanghai
1923: Nationalists and Communists form an alliance.
April 1927: The Shanghai Massacre occurs in Shanghai.
1934: Mao's troops began their long march.
1947: India and Pakistan become independent states.
1949: Communist party takes over china.
1953: The Korean War finally comes to an end.
1965: Lyndon Johnson sends US troops to South Vietnam.
1972: U.S. Presidnet Richard Nixon visits China.
1989: The Tiananmen Square massacre goes on.


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Sun Yat-sen
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Deng Xiaoping

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President Richard Nixon





People:

  1. Henry Pu Yi- Was the last emperor of China and the last of the Manchu Dynasty. He ruled from 1906-1967.

  2. Sun Yat-sen- Was the founder of modern China after the Chinese Revolution of 1911. He was the leader of the revolution against the Manchu rulers and founded the 1st Chinese Republic.

  3. Chiang Kai-shek- Also called Jiang Jieshi, was the president of the first Republic of China from 1928-1945 after Sun Yat-sen's death.

  4. Mao Zedong- Also called Mao Tse-Tung was the leader of the CCP and the Red Army. He became the chairman of the Communist Party from 1949-1976.

  5. President Harry Truman- Ordered U.S. troops into North Korea to stop the spread of communism. They enter North Korea in September of 1950 and soon after in the Battle of the Choshin Reservoir the troops are pushed across the 38th Parallel.

  6. Dalai Lama- The famous spiritual leader of Tibet, was exiled from India and now lives in the United States. He is pushing for Tibetan independence and was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989.

  7. President Richard Nixon- In 1972 he made a historic visit to Red China or Communist China and freed diplomatic relations between the U.S. and China putting an end to their two decades of hostility.

  8. Henry Kissinger- Was the U.S. Secretary of State in 1971 and made a secret trip to China to discuss Chinese and American affairs.

  9. Deng Xiaoping- Was the Premier of China from 1976-1989 and was the successor to Mao. During his reign he continued to work on modernizing China with the "Four Modernizations.

  10. Jiang Quing- Was Mao Zedong's 4th wife and was arrested and thrown in prison by the Gang of Four who tried to take power after Mao Zedong's death.




For More Information:

Deng Xiaoping- His biography

Chiang Kai-shek- A brief biography on Chiang Kai-shek.

Communist China- A timeline of the 50 yrs China has been a Communist country.

Chinese Revolution of 1911- A brief overview of the repercussions of this event.

Tiananmen Square Massacre- What caused this event and how it affected the people of China.

The Goddess of Democracy- Why this statue was constructed and what it represents.

Hong Kong- How the Chinese regained control of Hong Kong from the British.

Ping Pong Diplomacy- What it means and how it affected U.S.-China relations.

Choshin Reservoir- The events of the great battle and the history of the area.

The Great Leap Forward- The events of the time period and how it affected the people of China.