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1800-1914
Kaylee, Eliza, Hannah

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Suez Canal
At the beginnning of 1880s European states were fully invested in the extenstion of a their nation's power over other lands. This was known as imperialism and although it was not new, it had never been as much as a priority as it was during this time. Much of the force behind imperialism was the economic motive. Europe had already set up trading posts in Africa and Asia but now they wanted nothing but direct control over them. Europe was looking for both markets and raw materials for their industries. Another motive for expanding their power was the effect it had on European affairs. European nation-states were involved in some intense rivalries and for Europe to acquire colonies in other lands would give them an advantage over the rivalries. Colonies began to be looked at as a sign of greatness and a source of national prestige. Many people saw imperialism as a right which linked imperialism to Social Darwinism and also racism. Others saw it in a more religious light saying it was their moral responsibility to civilize the people of Africa and Asia, or as they called them, the primitive people.

Great Britain was the first to start the process of imperialism. Under the rule of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Britain founded a new colony on a small island at the tip of the Malay Penisula, or Singapore. During the next decade, Britain continued its advance into Southeast Asia then took over the Kingdom of Burma. Britain had wanted control over Burma in order to protect its possesions in India and to establish a land route through Burma into South China. Although Britain was unable to find a route to China they caused the Burmese monarchy to fall which led to Britain gaining control over the entire country. Next, came the advance of the French. With the British near by France decided to stop them from advancing into Vietnam and made the Vietnamese ruler give up territories and accept French protection. Eventually, the Vietnamese Empire became a French protectorate. Lastly, the final conquest in Southeast Asia occurred at the end of the nineteenth century. The United States made the Philippines into an American colony.
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David Livingstone
This made the United States more powerful and led to a trading market with China.While conquests in Southeast Asia were underway, European nations began to set their sights on building an empire in Africa. Britian was the first nation to set up a colony of the African Gold Coast and also set up a protectorate over the warring states of Nigeria. Also France had added the huge area of French West Africa to its empire, which made France in control of the largest part of West Africa. Germany also had control over areas. In North Africa, Egypt became in the main focus and Europeans took an active interest in the nation, especially after the construction of the Suez Canal. In 1875, Britain bought Egypt's share of the Suez Canal and became a protectorate in 1914. The French also took an interest in Egypt and had colonies set up and eventually established a protectorate over much of Morocco. While all of this was happening in North Africa, territories in Central Africa were also coming under European rule as well. This land had gained many explorers interest, the most famous of them being David Livingstone. He explored much of Central Africa and when he disappeared for awhile Henry Stanley went out to search and eventually succeed in finding him. Once Livingstone died Stanely took over his exploration. With Stanely's advice King Leopold II of Belgium began to civilize Central Africa, and he continued to set up Belgium colonies along the Congo River. Europeans continued their advance into Africa for decades but by the beginning of the twentieth century African natives began to organize political parties and movements to seek the end of foreign rule.




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Terms:
Protectorate: Political unit that depends on another government for its protection. France seized the city of Hanoi and later madeemperor_meiji.PNG the Vietnamese Empire.
Imperialism: Extension of a nations power over other lands. Began in 1880's European states began an intense scramble for overseas territory.
Indirect Rule: Colonial power could realize its goal most easily through cooperation with local political elites. Local rulers were allowed to maintian their positions of authority.
Direct Rule: Local elites were removed rom power and replaced with anew set of officials brought from the mother country.
Annexed: incorporated a country within a state. Great Britiain took control of the weest coastal states as the first British colony of Gold Coast.
Indigneous: Native to a region. The Boers believed in white superiority therefore they put native people into reservations.
Sepoys: Protect the company's interests in the region. British East India Company had its own soldiers and forts. They hired indian soldiers.
Viceroy: A governor who ruled as a representtative of a monarch. British governement ruled India directly through this who was assisted by a British civil service staff.
Creoles: Descendents of Europeans born in Latin America who lived there permanetley. Found the principles of the equality of all people in the eyes of the law..etc
Caudillos: Most new nations of Latin America began with republican governments, but they had no experience in ruling themselves. Soon after independce, strong rulers came into power.








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Zulu Warriors
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Shaka Zulu



People:

  1. David Livingstone: A british explorer who traveled all over Africa and on one of his travels mysteriously disappeared. Henry Stanley was then hired to find Dr. Livingstone.
  2. Henry Stanley: Hired by the New York Herald to find Livingstone after he disappeared in Africa, and searched for him for 8 months, not long after finding Livingstone he died and Henry Stanley took over the exploration of Africa.
  3. Shaka Zulu: The famous leader of the Zulu tribe in Africa, fought against the British and won several times as the British tried to expand their empire into Africa.
  4. Muhammad Ali: Freed the Egyptians and egypt gained independence from the Ottoman Empire.
  5. King Leopold II: Was known as "The Civilizer" and hired Henry Stanley to look for David Livingstone in Africa and lastly Belgium took control of the Congo.
  6. Menelik II: An Ethiopian Emperor in 1896, lead the battle of Adowa and defeated the invading Italians and was soon the only African nation not under the European's control.
  7. Cecil Rhodes: Was the British Prime Minister of Cape Colony and helped expand the British Empire into Africa, he founded Rhodesia and named it after himself.
  8. Empress Dowager Cixi: Ruled China from 1861-1908 and was possibly the most powerful woman in Chinese History and was very proud of this. "I have often thought I am the cleverest woman who ever lived"- Dowager Cixi.
  9. Commodore Matthew Perry: On July 8, 1853 he lead the White Fleet (a U.S. fleet) to Edo Bay and started to discuss negotiations with Japan.
  10. Queen Victoria: Queen of England at the time (1877) and was proud of the nickname the "Empress of India" and served as the viceroy of India, India was often called the "Jewel in the Crown".

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Map of Africa


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Henry Stanley

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Map of Asia
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The White Man"s Burden

For More Information:

Zulu vs. British - Summarizes the battle between the Zulu tribe and the British.
Westernization of Africa - Briefly goes over the events of this era.
Imperialism in South Africa - Some of the events and effects they had on the Africans.
Africa History Timeline -a timeline showing major events of the era that took place in Africa.
David Livingstone- A brief diography and list of hid travels.
Shaka Zulu- Biography about Shaka and the great Zulu battles.
Henry Stanley- His biography and how he found Dr. Livingstone.
Cecil Rhodes- His biography and his mission to control Africa.
Muhammad Ali- How he freed the Egyptians and his other achievements.
King Leopold II- How his reign affected Belgium.























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Soldiers of the Boer War